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Tetanus ( lock jaw)


It is an acute disease that results from the contamination of the wound by the spores.
Punctures, laceration and confused wound provide the better germination ground for the anaerobic organism to produce the toxin, than compared to clean cut open wounds
Causative organism is the exotoxin of clostridium tetani which is Gram +ve anaerobic spore bearing bacilli(rod or drumstick shape)
Types of Tetanus:
traumatic tetanus
Puerperal tetanus
Otogenic tetanus
Tetanus neonatorum
Idiopathic tetanus
Clinical features-1) onset is usually insidious, heralded by the stiffness of the muscles of the jaw,or neck
2) difficulty in opening the mouth( trismus or lock jaw)
3) difficulty in swallowing
4) spasm of the neck muscles
5)opisthotonus develope
6)sensorium remains unaltered
7) apprehension present
8) respiratory obstruction or laryngiospasm
9)cynosis
10) asphyxia
11) stimuli may cause generalized spasm for several min.
Prevention – active immunization
Passive immunization
Active passive immunization

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